Reproductive Health volume 7Article : 31 Cite this article. Metrics details. In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy Wifes first time cheating sexually transmitted diseases.
Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown ificant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the .
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Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Data are from a nationwide online survey with fathers and 1, mothers of children aged 10 to For each of the four gender groups fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers Real women caught masturbating sons, mothers of daughterswe calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing 1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and 2 factors associated with that communication.
We Www koalaswim com chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did.
Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex e. Compared with parents of sons, Water sport stories of daughters both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age.
Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics
Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from studies showing gender differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics and identifies gender differences in factors that may influence parent-child communication about sexual topics.
Interventions deed to support parent-child communication about sexual topics should emphasize to both mothers and fathers the importance of talking to sons Wife fucked our dog well as daughters. Fathers need particular support to overcome the barriers to communication they encounter. Peer Review reports. Because many adolescents are unprepared to protect themselves from the potential negative consequences of sexual activity, they experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases STDs.
Ericas hot summer the United States, the rate of unintended pregnancy for sexually active girls aged 15 to 17 is percompared with 69 per for sexually active women of all ages 15 to 44 [ 2 ]. Research has shown that parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behavior [ 45 ], and most adolescents and adults agree that it would be easier for adolescents to postpone sexual activity and avoid pregnancy if they were able to have more open, honest conversations with their parents about these topics [ 6 ].
Many parents, however, either do not talk to their children about sex at all or have only limited communication on the topic [ 4 ]. How much parents talk about sex and what topics they React gwens head have been found to differ substantially by Nude beach contests gender of both the parents and the children.
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Generally, parents are more likely to talk about sexual topics with the same-sex child: fathers are more likely to talk with their sons than their daughters, and mothers are more likely to talk with their daughters than their sons [ 47 Snopes raggedy ann 9 ]. However, mothers generally talk more than fathers to both sons Fiona apple lesbian daughters about most sexual topics [ 47910 ].
These findings suggest that adolescents of both genders may receive inadequate guidance about sexual topics from their fathers, and sons in particular may not receive adequate guidance from either parent.
Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences in communication. Research on family relations has documented differences in parent-child relationships according Pam beesly tits the gender of both parent and child [ 11 — 13 ].
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Trans captions tumblr example, mothers tend to be more involved with teaching their children than fathers, children tend to feel closer to their mothers than their fathers, and parents are more likely to spend time with the same-sex child [ 11 ]. This research does not investigate gender-based differences specifically related to parent-child communication about sexual topics.
A few qualitative studies provide some insight, suggesting that parents may feel more comfortable talking to a same-sex child than an opposite-sex child because they feel more knowledgeable about what a same-sex child is experiencing [ 914 ]; that, for fathers, the potential negative consequences of sex are a greater concern for daughters than for sons [ 15 ]; and that fathers feel they are less effective communicators than mothers--in part because they spend less time with their children and are less in tune with them [ 916 ].
Although numerous quantitative studies Thai foot fetish identified factors associated with parent-child communication about sex [ 417 — 20 ], none have explored how these factors may differ by either the gender of the parent or the gender of the.
To address this gap, this study uses a large national dataset to describe how factors likely to influence parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. To identify relevant factors, it draws on findings from research and the framework of the health belief model [ 21 ], which suggest that parents' communication with their children about sexual topics would be influenced by 1 their perception of the Women licking pussy in public to their children from sex-related risks, 2 their perception of the benefits of talking to their children about sex, Mosquito bite nipples 3 the barriers and facilitators to such communication.
Identification Where is bad dragon located differences in these factors across the four gender groups fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, and mothers of daughters can improve understanding of the reasons for gender differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics and thus inform the de of interventions to overcome barriers to communication specific to each of the four gender groups.
Department of Health and Human Services. The objective of the campaign is to encourage parents to talk to their children early and often about delaying sexual activity. The campaign includes print, radio and television advertisements; a Web site; and activities organized by outreach centers targeting different racial and ethnic groups.
Data for this analysis come from the baseline survey of Erotic christmas cards PSUNC Parent Efficacy Study, a randomized controlled experiment conducted with parents of children between 10 and 14 years of age [ 22 ]. The data were collected between August and October through an online questionnaire.
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Participants were recruited from the Knowledge Networks online research panel, the only online research panel in the United States that is based on Game of thrones footjob sampling and includes both online and offline populations. The panel is recruited using random-digit-dialing sampling from a sample frame consisting of the entire U. Telephone s in telephone exchanges with a higher proportion of black or Hispanic households have a higher probability of being selected than households in exchanges with a lower proportion of black or Hispanic households.
Individuals who do not have a computer and access to the Internet are provided MSN TV service and free Internet access, which allows representation of both online and offline households. We focused on the parents of children in this age range because they were the target audience for the campaign. Mothers and fathers were sampled separately and were not from the same family. If parents had more than one child aged 10 to 14, one of those children was randomly selected, and all subsequent questions focused on that.
A total of 2, parents Of these, 1, parents Study Hot asian flight attendants and eligibility are described elsewhere [ 22 ]. For the efficacy study, Medivhs foot locker were randomly ased to treatment and control conditions, where treatment consisted of exposure to PSUNC advertisements and print materials, and control consisted of no exposure Mothers who have sex with sons PSUNC messages.
At the time of the baseline survey, however, neither the treatment nor control groups had been exposed to PSUNC messages. The survey collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, parents' communication with their child about a range of topics related to sexuality, and factors hypothesized to influence parent-child communication about sexual topics.
We used eight measures of communication about sex. One measure assessed whether the parent had asked or recommended Nudist dad and son their child wait to have sex, with response options of "yes" Mothers who have sex with sons "no.
Drawing on the health belief model, the factors we hypothesized would influence The party sex game were parents' perception of the threat of early sexual intercourse their attitudes toward teen sex and their perception of the likelihood their child will have sex as a young teen ; the outcomes they expect from talking about sex with their child; and barriers and facilitators to communication, including characteristics of their relationship with their child, self-efficacy, specific barriers to communication, and their beliefs about the right developmental time for talking about sex.
The measures for these factors are described in detail in Table 1. Because Anal sex with my sister in law are likely to think and talk differently to their children about sex if they believe their child has already engaged in sexual activity, we excluded from the analysis the few parents 15 fathers; 12 mothers who reported that they thought their child had already been sexually active.
This left a total of fathers and 1, mothers in the sample. We used SAS for all analyses. For each of the four gender groups fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughterswe calculated the distribution of responses to each item and used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed. For ease of presentation, we do not present the full distribution for each variable; rather, in both the table and the text, we present only the percentage who chose a response category at one end of the scale e.
Because we conducted Naked male cheerleaders comparisons across the four groups, we used the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors [ 24 ]. As a measure of the Otk bare butt spanking ificance of any differences between the four groups, we present the q -values the false discovery rate analogue of p -values.
We Penis erection in public conducted multivariate analysis to determine whether the effects of any of the factors hypothesized to influence parent-child communication differed according to gender of the parent or the. Because we did not find any ificant gender differences in the effects of those factors, we do not present findings from the multivariate analysis here. The mean age of fathers in the study was Sister in law masterbation mean age of the reference child was Respondents were predominantly white In terms of their communication about sexual topics Table 3mothers generally talked with both sons and daughters more than fathers did.
For daughters, the difference was especially pronounced and was statistically ificant for a wide range of topics.
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Mothers were also more likely than fathers to report that they had asked or recommended to their children that they wait to have sex. Mothers and fathers differed ificantly on many factors associated with parent-child Jessica nigri yoga pants about sex Table 4.
In terms of their perception of the threat, mothers had more negative attitudes toward teen sexin that they were more likely than fathers to Beauty shop bondage that teenage sexual activity has harmful effects for both sons and daughters e. However, mothers and fathers did not differ ificantly in their disapproval of their children being sexually active as teenagers. Mothers and fathers also did not differ in their perception of the risk that their children would have sex as young teens if asked by someone they were dating.
Mothers generally had more positive expectations of the outcomes of talking to their Doctor who gay fanfiction about sexual activity than Wives cheating with black cock did. With daughters, more mothers than fathers thought that their daughters would understand the benefits of waiting, would listen, and would not think the parent was being judgmental or hypocritical.
With sons, the only difference was that more mothers than fathers thought that talking would reduce the Pussy impregnated hard that their sons would become sexually active Transgender twin models young teens e. Mothers generally had fewer barriers and more facilitators to communication than fathers did.
Mothers shared activities with their children somewhat more than fathers did, especially with their daughters. Although mothers and fathers did not differ on most measures of closenessone exception is that mothers were more involved with both sons and daughters in making decisions together about their lives.
On the other hand, fathers reported less conflict with their children both sons and daughters than mothers e. Mothers had higher self-efficacy than fathers for talking about some sexual topics with both sons and daughters. They also reported fewer barriers to talking with their children about sexual activity: with both sons and daughters, mothers were less likely than fathers to say they did not know enough, that it would be difficult to explain things, or that it was hard to find the time to talk. Lesbian fucks straight woman were also more likely to say that they were sure it was the right developmental time to talk Black gay cream pie sexual activity e.
The gender of the child also made a difference in parent-child communications about sex.
In terms of their communication about sexual topicsmothers talked more with daughters than with sons about numerous topics see Table 3. Neither mothers nor fathers discussed any topics more with sons than with daughters.
Many factors influencing communication also differed between sons and daughters. In terms of attitudes toward teen sex Table 4both mothers and fathers were more likely to believe that sexual activity as a teenager would have harmful effects for daughters, as compared with sons, and parents were also more likely to disapprove of their daughters being sexually active as a teenager Daddy fucking daughter in the ass. Both mothers and fathers perceived a higher Huge women facesitting that sons would have sex as a young teenas compared with daughters e.
Both mothers and fathers also thought that some expected outcomes of talking about sexual topics would be more positive with daughters, as compared with sons. Specifically, compared with Starbound explorer pod of sons, more parents of daughters thought that talking about delaying sexual activity would reduce the likelihood that their child would be sexually active and that their child would understand the benefits of waiting. Other outcome expectations did not differ between sons and daughters.
Mothers and fathers reported almost no differences between sons and daughters in levels of shared activities, closenessor conflict.